2001 Patriot Act Comes into Effect in the US
Signed into law by President George W. Bush as a result of the September 11, 2001, attacks, the act is formally known as Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The act gave security agencies more power to deal with terrorists and terrorist activities and made it easier for them to monitor and investigate people suspected of aiding and abetting acts of terrorism. It has been criticized for its detrimental effect on civil liberties.
1984 First Infant to Receive an Organ From Another Species
Born on October 14, 1984, with a rare congenital heart defect, Baby Fae received a heart from a baboon. The surgery was performed by Dr. Leonard L. Bailey at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. While the operation was successful, Baby Fae’s body rejected the heart, and she died a few weeks later.
1947 The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir Joins India
Hari Singh, the last ruler of the princely state, signed the Instrument of Accession to join the Dominion of India, in return for protection from the Indian military.
1863 The Football Association is Formed
The world’s oldest governing football body was created at the Freemasons’ Tavern in London. The foundation was instrumental in creating and formalizing rules of the game. Before this, every area and organization playing football (soccer) made their own rules.
1825 Erie Canal opens for ships
Construction of the 363-mile long canal began in 1817. The canal which connects Lake Erie in Buffalo, New York, to the Hudson River in Albany, New York, was used to ship goods in a time when it was cheaper and more effective to transport them through the waterways. Since the 1990s, the canal had been primarily used for recreational purposes.